Prunella vulgaris:Modern Findings and Studies.
Prunella vulgaris:Modern Findings and Studies.
1.Lower blood pressure:Action to the Cardiovacular System,Antihypertensive effect.
Prunella vulgaris decoction proved to be used to reduce the high blood pressure for animals.
Water decoction, water-alcohol decoction and 30% alcohol solution decoction of Prunella vulgaris show function of lower cholesterol and decrease blood pressure for the laboratory narcotic animal experiment.
For example, mainline decoction of Prunella vulgaris at a dosage of 100mg/kg to the dog, the result showing a good effect on lowering blood pressure, mainline to a dog at dosage 1~1.5G and make blood pressure decreased 40~60mmHg, and recovered back in 2~5 minutes. Ip 3~4 grams make blood pressure decreased 30~40mmHg in 15~30 minutes, and lasting 1~2 hours. Pour 2~5 grams to dogs could show slight blood pressure action in 30~60 minutes and continued 2 hours around.
Heart Perfusion experiment for toad heart and rabbit heart showing that low concentration decoction of Prunella vulgaris cause exiting and make the swing of heart increase, and higher concentration the opposite effect.
Chinese Scientists found its "Antihypertensive effect:This product is water extract,ethanol a flooding fluid and 30% ethanol extract, hypotensive effect in anesthetized animals.Prunella vulgaris decoction dog intravenous injection 100mg/kg, a significant antihypertensive effect, but easy to produce rapid tolerance phenomenon, similar to the antihypertensive effect of intravenous l-1.5g sheep and dogs, chronic skin bridge dog twice a day each 2g/kg orally, also hypotensive effect. Renal hypertensive dogs, taking two weeks there is a certain antihypertensive effect, but after stopping to restore the original level, and also that the antihypertensive effect is closely related to this product contains inorganic salts."2
2.Effects on acute cardiac infarction and the blood pressure.
Administered by abdominal injection to anesthetic rats, prunellin (PVS), an extract of Xia Ku Cao can significantly decrease Ig pvc, Ig (VT+VF) and arrhythmia. Four hours after the ligation of the coronary artery, administering PVS to anesthetic rats at 20mg/kg reduced the affected area of cardiac infarction and scope of the area of cardiac infarction to shrink compared to the contrast group. Administered by IV injection at 2.5mg/kg, PVS can significantly decrease both the diastolic and the systolic pressures in anesthetic rats.
3.Lower Blood Sugar,Hypoglycemic Effect:
Research proved that,effective constituents from prunella show strong inhibition on mice blood sugar increasing by alloxan reasons at 50mg/kg dose, and no toxic effects, further study disclosed it seems the blood sugar lowering and inhibition effects of Prunella has relations with improved sugar metabolism and beta-cell regulation as so make insulin secretion normal.
Alcohol-based extracts of Xia Ku Cao can reduce the level of blood sugar in normal mice (0.5g/kg, ig) as well as in mice of alloxan-induced diabetes (0.5, 0.25g/kg/d, ig). They can also counteract adrenalin-induced blood sugar increase, improve glucose tolerance, and increase the synthesis of hepatic glycogen (0.5, 0.25g/kg, ig).
Chinese Scientists found its "Hypoglycemic Effect:An extract from Prunella vulgaris not Kam compound(tentative name hypoglycemic hormone).In hypoglycemic hormone 50mg/kg subcutaneously to mice, it can inhibit the blood glucose alloxan damage caused by elevated (P less than 0.001).The minimum effective amount of 15mg/kg(mice). The potency of 100mg hypoglycemic hormone insulin equivalent 22.6u."2
4.Effects on Blood Rheology.
Experiments show that Xia Ku Cao has the effect of improving some indexes of blood rheology.
5.Lower Blood Cholesterol.
some researches proved that traditional combinations composed of prunella vagaris and bloodsucker,Chinese Goldthread could applied for blood cholesterol adjustment of many animals,mouse,diabetic rabbit experiment resulted lower TG,VLDL and cholesterol level.
Prunella vulgaris rich in Potassium salt, so could be used as good diuretic.
Decoction of Prunella vulgaris showing diuretic effect, 50% concentration of water decoction make rabbit uterus strongly shrinking, make rabbit gut wriggle strongly.
Prunella vulgaris decoction diluted in tube as 1:1280 ratio proved to be strong inhibition and control on diarrhea bacilli,dilution as 1:640 show strong control on tuberculin
Test proved that the decoction of Prunella valgaris shows inhibition on many bacateria, such as diarrhea,salmonella typhi,Vibrio cholerae,E.Coli, Proteus valgaris,Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Alcohol decoction of Prunella valgaris shows inhibition on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, water decoction of Prunella valgaris show inhibition on fungi in test tube at rate 1:4.
Chinese Scientists found its "Antibacterial,Antiviral:In vitro tests showed that the drug decoction of Shigella, Salmonella typhi,Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Proteus, Staphylococcus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis have different degrees of inhibition.Its alcohol extract agar medium on inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Aqueous extracts (1:4) in vitro on certain common skin pathogenic fungi have different degrees of inhibition. Extracts of this product has anti-type I herpes simplex virus."2
8.Prunella vulgaris experiment on cardiac muscle.
Exciting action when low dosage, and make swing increase, on the opposite side, high dosage make swing decrease and show inhibiting effects.
9.Uterus and gut effects.
Prunella vulgaris decoction show exciting effects on the uterus and gut of rabbit.
Prunella vulgaris show the good function of anti-inflammation, this character comes from and related with the synthesis and higher secretion of adrenocortical hormones, especially of the glucocorticoid(GCS). Its anti-inflammatory effects have close relationships with adrenal gland glucocorticoid synthesis and excretory.
Applying Injection of Prunella vulgaris could make thymus gland and spleen atrophy, increase size of the adrenal gland, also make the level of hydrocortisone(cortisol) increase high, all these proved that Prunella vulgaris is a kind of good natural Immunosuppression.
Chinese Scientists found its "Impact on immune function: subcutaneous injection animals can thymus, spleen obvious atrophy, adrenal gland increased significantly; intraperitoneal injection of the level of plasma cortisol levels were significantly increased. Pathological examination showed thymic cortex was thinner, lymphocytes thinning, you can see the white pulp small spleen lymphocytes and red pulp is sparse and blurred boundaries, but also to increase the adrenal zona fasciculata cells, sinus expansion. It indicates that the product may be an immunosuppressant, which due to certain pathological damage caused by the immune process may have potential therapeutic implications. In the long term, a large number patients of blindness prevention of immune function is suppressed."2
Modern pharmaceutical studies showed prunella vagaris has some effects of anti-tumor. Others consider it has a stronger toxic effect and no clinical value. Experiment from Lee proved ursolic acid and its derivatives has strong cytotoxic effects on cell P388, L1810 and human tumor cell A-549. The experiment about the water-alcohol extracts of prunella vagaris on cell SGC-7901,5% concentration of this injection of prunella(IPV) shows strong inhibition in growth of SGC-7901 and induce it to death, and this experiment comes into a conclusion that tumor cell-induced death is one of the mechanisms of prunella antitumor effects.
13.Effects on bone marrow normoblast.
Research has found that Xia Ku Cao with white flowers has some effect on the bone marrow normoblast in animals of low-oxygen environments; it can stabilize the fluctuation of normoblast blood islands.
14.Effects on the thymus, the spleen and the adrenal glands.
Subcutaneous injection of Xia Ku Cao can significantly shrink animals thymus and spleen glands, and enlarge their adrenal glands. Furthermore, administered by abdominal injection, it can significantly raise the level of plasma cortisol.
15. Reducing Liver-fire to brighten vision.
For treatment of bloodshot eyes due to liver-fire, it is with Flos Chrysanthemi, Herba Taraxaci, etc.; for painful sensation of the eye-ball more severe at night, with Rhizoma Cyperi 30g, Radix Glycyrrhizae 6g, and 6g of their powder may be taken as a dose, twice a day; for painful sensation of the eyeballs due to deficiency of liver-Yin, with Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Radix Paeoniae Alba, etc.; for syndrome of hyperactivity of liver-Yang or flare-up of liver-fire, restlessness, and insomnia, as a medicine frequently used, it may be used singly or combined with drugs for Chrysanthemi Indici, Concha Haliotidis, Radix Scutellariae, etc.
Flaring up of liver fire manifested as red, painful, swollen and watery eyes, headache and dizziness. Prunella spike (Xiakucao) is used with Sea-ear shell (Shijueming) and Chrysanthemum flower (Juhua).
16. Clearing away evil fire and resolving mass.
For the treatment of Scrofula, goiter, mastitis, mumps, etc. due to accumulation and retention of evil factor as phlegm-fire, it may be used as a single medicine for preparation of soft extract taken for a duration of time, or combined with Radix Scrophulariae, Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii, Thallus Laminariae seu Eckloniae, etc., which may be selected according to the syndrome of the specific patient.
Accumulation of phlegm-fire manifested as scrofula, lipoma, swollen glands or goiter. Prunella spike (Xiakucao) is used with the Oyster shell (Muli), Scrophularia (Xuanshen) and Laminaria (Kunbu). Now, it is often indicated in hypertension, goiter, tuberculosis of lymph nodes, hyperplasia of the mammary gland, etc. Besides, it can also be used to treat pulmonary tuberculosis, lymphosarcoma, the tumour of the mediastinum, etc.
1: Prunella vulgaris: Selfheal, Prunella spike, Xia Ku Cao, a pungent magical herb, its botanical introduction, legend, and uses from ancient till today.
2: see CHMM(Zhong Hua Ben Cao,or Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).
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