Botanical Description of Panax Ginseng.
- Botanical Identification and Information of Panax Ginseng.
- Botanical Description of Panax Ginseng.
- Overview and Tells of Panax ginseng.
- Constituents and Phytochemicals of Panax Ginseng.
- Herb Introduction and Character of Panax Ginseng Root.
- Various Uses of Panax Ginseng.
- Therapeutics and Modern Findings of Panax Ginseng.
- The Trade War of Ginseng since recent modern period.
Difference between Ginsengs.
Ginseng refers to species within Panax, a genus of 11 species of slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, in the family Araliaceae. They grow in the Northern Hemisphere in eastern Asia (mostly northern China, and eastern Siberia), typically in cooler climates; Panax vietnamensis, discovered in Vietnam, is the southernmost ginseng found. Ginseng is characterized by the presence of ginsenosides.
The name Panax is derived from Panacea, the Greek goddess able to 'heal all'. Ginseng has been used in China for over 5000 years. The Chinese name RenShen means 'man root', named after the shape of its thick taproot, and those roots resembling the human form are highly prized, and the best grade roots are worth more than gold. Wild ginseng, is considered the best.
Panax, the generic name, is derived from the Greek Panakos (a panacea), in reference to the miraculous virtue ascribed to it by the Chinese, who consider it a sovereign remedy in almost all diseases.
Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) is not a ginseng at all. It is another adaptogen, but a different species named "Siberian ginseng" as a marketing ploy; instead of a fleshy root, it has a woody root; instead of ginsenosides, eleutherosides are present.
The Asian ginseng grows to about 0.8 m by 0.7 m, while the American ginseng is smaller, and grows to about 0.3 m by 0.5 m at a slow rate. The ginseng plant requires 5-7 years to mature from seed. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs). The plant can grow in full shade (deep woodland) or semi-shade (light woodland). It requires moist soil.
The ginseng plant has leaves that grow in a circle around a straight stem. Yellowish-green umbrella-shaped flowers grow in the center and produce red berries. Wrinkles around the neck of the root tell how old the plant is. This is important because ginseng is not ready for use until it has grown for four to six years.
Ginseng root consists of the dried main and lateral root and root hairs of P. ginseng C.A. Meyer and their preparations in an effective dosage. The root contains at least 1.5% ginsenosides, calculated as ginsenoside Rg1.
Panax is a perennial plant indigenous to the mountainous forests of the northern temperate zone of Eastern Asia and is cultivated in China. It has a thick, spindle-like brown-yellow root, often divided at the end. The simple glabrous stem bears a whorl of three or five palmately compound leaves consisting of five oblong-ovate, finely double-serrate leaflets. From June to August it is topped with a single umbel of greenish-yellow flowers. The fruit is a small edible drupe-like pale red berry. The activity of young cultivated roots is said to be up to half that of old roots grown in the wild. Commercially produced Panax is either grown as undergrowth in shady forests or shaded by mats in the open. Two forms are available, - 'white' Ginseng (often with the outer skin peeled off) and 'red' ginseng, prepared by steaming the root before drying. Red ginseng contains all the saponins so far isolated from white ginseng, and others which are probably formed during the steaming process.
Ginseng has a sweetly aromatic flavour. The ginseng root has long been used as a valued tonic herb in China, called "root of heaven." The Chinese regard ginseng as a panacea for illness, though it was usually used in a preventive rather than a curative manner.
In China, ginseng is mainly produced in Hu Bei, Hu Nan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, and other provinces. Wild ginseng is called Mountain Ginseng, while cultivated ginseng is known as Garden Ginseng.
In general, 6-7 years after its cultivation, the herb is dug out in mid-September. Fresh ginseng should be cleaned and dried. Raw ginseng dried in the sun is called sun-dried raw ginseng; ginseng steamed and dried in the sun of roasted is called red ginseng; and ginseng boiled, soaked in syrup and dried is known as sugar-processed ginseng or white ginseng.
Botanical Description of Panax Ginseng.
Common herbal classics defined the herb Panax Ginseng(Ren Shen) as the root of the Araliaceae family plant species (1).Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. This commonly used species and its different kinds are introduced as:
(1).Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.: The Panax ginseng C. A. Mey., is a plant of the Araliaceae family and Panax L. genus, perennial, up to 60 cm. The main roots are hypertrophic, fleshy, cylindrical, and often divergent. They are commonly referred to as "spiritual bodies" or "cross bodies" by the upper two divergent members; those who do not divide or are commonly referred to as "stupid bodies" or "special bodies" in the lower bifurcation; It is long, with many small pods; there are scars on the rhizomes, and sometimes the roots take effect. Stems erect, green, slender, smooth and glabrous. The impeller is born on the stem, the number varies according to the age of growth. When it was born, it was 1 out of 3 compound leaves. The biennial was 1 out of 5 palmate compound leaves. The three-year-old was 2 out of 5 palmate compound leaves. The number of them is 3, and thereafter they increase year by year and finally increase to 6; the leaves are long-handled; the leaflets are ovate or obovate, the leaflets at the base of the compound leaves are small, 2 to 3 cm long and 1 to 1.5 cm wide; the upper leaflets are long. 4 to 15 cm, width 2.2 to 4 cm; apex acuminate, base cuneate, decurrent, margin serrate, erect bristles along leaf veins below, glabrous below; petioles up to 2.6 cm. The total peduncle is extracted from the middle of the petiole of the stem and is about 7 to 20 cm long. The terminal umbel inflorescence has more than a dozen or dozens of yellowish-green flowers, usually beginning to bloom in the fourth year; the flowers are pedicel, bisexual and Male; green, 6-lobed; petals 6, apex cuspidate; stamens 5; ovary inferior, 2-celled, styles 2, free in bisexual flowers, hollow in tubers in male flowers. Berry-like stone fruit, kidney-shaped, bright red at maturity, 1 seed per room. Seeds white, flat round oval, flat on one side. Flowering from June to July. Fruiting period from July to September.
Ecosystem:The Panax ginseng C. A. Mey., grows in dense forest of mountains. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributed in China provinces mountains of Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning and northern Hebei. Liaoning and Jilin have extensive cultivation. The plant grows in wild environment are called "Wild Ginseng,or Wild Mountain Ginseng"; the plant cultivated are called "Garden Ginseng". The plant which grows from the transplanting young wild ginseng into the farm fields, or transplanting cultivated young ginseng shrub into the wild and growing up, are called "Transplant Wild Ginseng". The Wild Mountain Ginseng, Garden Ginseng and Transplant Wild Ginseng, are introduced as:
(1.1).Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.(Wild Mountain Ginseng): The Panax ginseng C. A. Mey., is a plant of the Araliaceae family and Panax L. genus, it grows in mountains and commonly known as "Wild Ginseng", or "Wild Mountain Ginseng", or "Ye Shan Shen", perennial; rhizomes (reticular heads) short, erect or oblique, not thickened into chunks. Main root hypertrophy, spindle or cylindrical. Stems aboveground solitary, 30-60 cm tall, with vertical stripes, glabrous, with persistent scales at base. Leaves are palmately compound, 3-6 tuberculous stems apically, young leaves less; petiole 3-8 cm long, longitudinally glabrous, glabrous, stipules absent at base; leaf blade 3-5, young plants often 3, thin-filmed, central lobate elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 8-12 cm long, 3-5 cm wide, outermost pair of lateral leaflets ovate or ovate-ovate, 2-4 cm long , 1.5-3 cm wide, apex long acuminate, base broadly cuneate, decurrent, margin serrate, teeth thorny, scattered a few bristles above, bristles ca. 1 mm, glabrous below, lateral veins 5-6 pairs , Obviously on both sides, the veins are not obvious; the petiole is 0.5-2.5 cm long and the lateral ones are shorter. Umbrella indistinct, ca. 1.5 cm in diam., 30-50 flowers, dilute 5-6-flowered; pedicels usually longer than leaves, 15-30 cm long, with vertical stripes; pedicels filiform, 0.8-1.5 in length Centimeter; flower yellowish green; gills glabrous, margin with 5 triangular teeth; petals 5, ovate-triangulate; stamens 5, filaments short; ovary 2-locular; styles 2, free. The fruit is spherical, bright red, 4-5 mm long and 6-7 mm wide. Seeds kidney-shaped, milky white.
Ecosystem: The Panax ginseng C. A. Mey., grows in a deciduous broad-leaved forest or coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest several hundred meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributed at 40 to 45 degrees north latitude and 117.5 to 134 degrees east longitude, in China provinces eastern Liaoning, eastern Jilin and eastern Heilongjiang. It distributed in Jilin and Liaoning and also introduced and grows in Hebei(Lingwushan and Dushan mountains), Shanxi and Hubei, Hunan, Guangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan.
The Wild Ginseng is the ginseng growing in the wild mountains. It is a valuable Chinese medicinal material and has a lot of value. The Wild Ginseng is considered to have the best quality and the best medicinal effect because it has been growing for a long time. In the years of excavation, more and more reductions have disappeared in most parts of Jilin. There are some growing in or around the Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve, grades according to the number of leaves.
The Wild Ginseng, also known as "Ren Shen", "Bang Chui(Battledore)", "Fairy Grass", "Di Jing(Earth Goblin)" and so on. There is also a legend about the origin of the name of the Di Jing(Earth Goblin): According to legend, during the years the emperor Sui Wendi of the Sui Dynasty was in power, someone in the Shangdang county heard somebody cries every night after they were home, but found nobody around. Going out a mile and found a ginseng which foliage grows abnormal. The man dug into the soil five feet in depth, get a ginseng, and it looks just like the human body, already have all four limbs, and the crying sound stopped. Ever since then, it was called Di Jing(Earth Goblin).
There are many other folk legends about ginseng, one story tells: Once upon a time, an old man in the mountains had a son who often went out into the mountains alone. One day, the son came back and told his father that he had met a chubby child dressing in a red belt in the mountains and play with him together. It is strange. The father told his son that the child might be a ginseng, and he took his son a needle and put on a red thread, asked his son put the needle in the pocket of the child and he wouldn’t walk if he was a ginseng! When the son encountered the chubby child in the mountains again, he pinned the needle in his pocket, and the child really turned into a large ginseng. Therefore, once the mountain people find ginseng, they must use the red thread prepared in advance to pin on the ginseng's stem, and ginseng can't run away.
The collection of wild ginseng is very laborious. People can only collect one wild ginseng in the mountains for a period of one or several months of hard work. It is said that there is a very beautiful bird in the deep mountains and old forests. It is most active in August. It likes to eat ginseng seeds and screams like a scholar. It will only say, “Wang Ganduo!” “Wang Ganduo!” Audible, where there is such a bird, there is ginseng. The wild ginseng grows naturally in the old remote, thickly forested mountains. Some of them have been growing for centuries and have not been cultivated artificially or chemically. The collection is very laborious and the medicinal value is extremely high. It is also a rare green precious treasure with high conservation value, and Expensive.
(1.2).Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.(Transplant Wild Ginseng): The Panax ginseng C. A. Mey., is a plant of the Araliaceae family and Panax L. genus, it grows in mountains or farm fields and commonly known as "Transplant Wild Ginseng", or "Yi Shan Shen", the plant which grows from the transplanting young wild ginseng into the farm fields, or transplanting cultivated young ginseng shrub into the wild and growing up, are called "Transplant Wild Ginseng". The wild ginseng is a rare medicinal material produced in the virgin forest of Changbai Mountain. It mainly grows in hilly broad-leaved mixed forests with an altitude of 2200--1000m and a canopy density of 0.7--0.8. The distribution areas generally have wet-type temperate monsoon climate characteristics and are mostly born in shade-sheltered areas where the east-west sun shines. The wild ginseng is the best ginseng of medicinal effect. It has a nourishing effect due to its sparse yield and enjoys a high reputation in the world.
The Transplant Wild Ginseng is a kind of wild ginseng. There are two types of it and known as "Mountain Transplant" or "Home Transplant": "Mountain Transplant" means a mountain farmer puts a mountain seedlings of present wild ginseng, due to their small weight and age, are not suitable to be stocked, so they are transplanted to the undergrowths near the home to facilitate caretakers and natural growth; “Home Transplant” refers to the ginseng planted by the farmers, the seedlings are transplanted into the forest in the mountains, and they are not watered or fertilized, so that they can grow naturally in the wild.
Ecosystem: The Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. (Transplant Wild Ginseng), grows in the forest of mountains.
The basic feature of the Transplant Wild Ginseng is that the burrowing leishen often becomes thin or thick, and it does not appear as a pile of reeds but turns to reeds. Lines of reeds are often found, most of which are bamboo reeds. The loose-vein looseness is not tight, and it is long and sparse; Most of them are swift, but some of them have long-term growth. They are sometimes called jujube kernels. Sometimes they appear to have thick and thin shapes. They are upturned and upward, and they have many overhangs. Sometimes the corpus callosum exceeds the body; More often than not, the legs are relatively lengthy, with 1-3 or more, the transplanting of new soil is large and the nutrition accumulation is mainly in the lower part of the main root, which makes the lower body expand rapidly, and the white and tender "big ass" remains unchanged. , showing the yin and yang color under the black and white; cortex slightly soaked and tender, was rough, not smooth, there are sparsely tight horizontal stripes, ring lines superficial, often a pattern, in the end, there is no tight fine lines; transplanted after the leg Must be swollen with the top and bottom, the legs must be divided, the ginseng must be tender and short, the lower branch more, no main must, the pearl point is sparse and small; the bottom of the pool ginseng is the longer the finer, thicker and thinner , upturned, lateral extension, coarse horizontal stripes, rough and wrinkled cortex, multiple burning whiskers, red rust, scars and other morbid states.
(1.3).Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.(Garden Ginseng): The Panax ginseng C. A. Mey., is a plant of the Araliaceae family and Panax L. genus, it grows farm fields and cultivated artificially, and commonly known as "Garden Ginseng", or "Planted ginseng", or "Yuan Shen", the plant grows similarly as the wild mountain ginseng.
The head of the reed is thick and not bent, and the reed is sparse on the reed head. The main root is mostly cylindrical, with loose texture; horizontal lines are thick and shallow, discontinuous, and upper and lower parts. The legs are many and short, the ginseng must be many and short, staggered and scattered, the quality is more brittle, and the pearls are not obvious. There are common garden ginseng and ginseng. The former is short, thick, and has many legs. The latter has been cultivated for more than eight years and is characterized by long reeds, body length, and leg length.
Ecosystem:The Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.(Garden Ginseng), mainly cultivated at Baishan City, Tonghua City of Jilin Province, Heilongjiang Province and Liaoning Province of China.
The appearance of the Garden Ginseng is beautiful, thick, and the roots are dense. It has some differences from the Wild Ginseng:1. The garden ginseng root is short and the wild ginseng's head is relatively long; 2. The garden ginseng body is stout and opaque milky white, while the wild ginseng is fine; 3. The garden ginseng of the ginseng must be dense like a broom and brittle, while the wild ginseng sparse, long and tough.
Since the Tang Dynasty, China has begun the artificial cultivation of ginseng. Cultivated garden ginseng has been cultivated in Hebei, Shanxi, Gansu, Ningxia, and Hubei provinces except for a large amount of cultivation in the northeast. Under meticulous management, cultivated ginseng can be harvested in 6 years. Ginseng mostly grows between 40 and 45 degrees north latitude, with an average temperature of -23~5°C in January, an average temperature of 20~26°C in July, strong cold resistance, the low-temperature resistance of -40°C, and the suitable growth temperature of 15~25°C. The accumulated temperature is 2000~3000°C, the frost-free period is 125~150 days, the snow is 20~44cm, and the annual precipitation is 500~1000mm. The soil is well-drained, loose, fertile, brown forest soil with deep humus layer or brownish forest soil with mountain pH value of 5.5-6.2. Grow in Pinus koraiensis mixed forest or deciduous broad-leaved forest, the canopy density is 0.7~0.8. Ginseng usually blooms in 3 years, results from 5 to 6 years, flowering from May to June, and fruiting from June to September. Born several hundred meters above sea level in a deciduous broad-leaved forest or coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest.
- 1.Panax Ginseng: its introduction and legend, How to use Panax Ginseng?
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