Research Update:Asparagus and compositions.
Research Update:Asparagus and compositions.
Study of chromium and nickel content in white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis, L.).:
The modifications in the chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) content and the distribution of these trace elements in white asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis, L.) were investigated. Samples were taken of two varieties of white asparagus, Desto and Cipres, and grouped in function of their thickness in spears of less than 11 mm and of > 14 mm. All the asparagus samples were cut in lengths of 20 cm and divided into 10 portions of 2 cm each. The determinations of chromium and nickel were carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with air-acetylene flame. The mean concentrations were 0.675 +/- 0.19 and 5.578 +/- 1.39 mg/kg dry weight for chromium and nickel, respectively. By means of three-factor analyses of variance (varieties, thickness and portions), statistically significant differences were determined between the concentrations of chromium and nickel and each one of the sources of variation established. The chromium content showed a variable distribution throughout the white asparagus portions as a result of the notable differences between varieties and thickness. In the case of nickel, its levels underwent a generalized decrease as the spear portions were further and further away from the apical area or tip of the white asparagus.
Purification and Monosaccharide Composition of Saponin from Asparagus officianlis L.: Method:Alcohol 95%,V/W=6:1,at 90 Deg C,4h.
Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis):
Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is considered by many to be a food that can promote good health. However, the distribution of antioxidants and phenolics in asparagus spears has not been determined. This information may help food manufacturers develop products for functional use of under utilized portions of the asparagus spear.
Our objective was to determine phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity in different portions of the asparagus spear.
Asparagus spears were cut into 3 parts: the basal part (0-7 cm from the cut end), the middle part (7-14 cm), and the apical part (14-22 cm). For total phenolics, the asparagus tissue was extracted with water. Total phenolics were measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. For total antioxidant activity (TAA), asparagus samples were extracted with PBS buffer (polar) and ethyl acetate (non-polar). TAA was measured using the ABTS/HRP decoloration method.
The concentration of total phenolics in the apical part of asparagus was significantly greater than the other two parts of asparagus. The total phenolics in the basal part of asparagus were 23.4 gallic acid equivalent mg/g, the middle part was 33.6 mg/g, and the apical part was 57.1 mg/g. The TAA of the basal part of asparagus was 3050 TROLEX equivalents nmoles/g, the middle part was 7600 nmoles/g, and the apical part was 10600 nmoles/g. In each part of the asparagus, the antioxidant activity of the polar fraction was much greater than the non-polar fraction.
These results demonstrate a positive relationship between total phenolics content and TAA in asparagus. The apical portion of asparagus has the greatest quantities of total phenolics and TAA and may exhibit greater potential functional value as a health food.
Nor-lignans and steroidal saponins from Asparagus gobicus:
From the roots of Asparagus gobicus, four new nor-lignans, 3'-methoxynyasin, iso-agatharesinol, gobicusins A, B and one new steroidal saponin, 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol (11) were isolated, together with twelve known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic methods including 2D-NMR techniques (1H-1H COSY, HMBC, HMQC) and chemical transformations. Nyasol (5) and 11 exhibited remarkable in vitro cytotoxic activity against cultured HO-8910 (human ovarian carcinoma) and Bel-7402 (human hepatoma) cells with IC50 vales of 30.6 and 29.4 microM, 5.2 and 5.2 microM, respectively.
Immunoadjuvant potential of Asparagus racemosus aqueous extract in experimental system:
The immunoadjuvant potential of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) Family (Liliaceae) aqueous root extract was evaluated in experimental animals immunized with diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (DTP) vaccine. Immunostimulation was evaluated using serological and hematological parameters. Oral administration of test material at 100 mg/kg per day dose for 15 days resulted significant increase (P = 0.0052) in antibody titers to Bordtella pertussis as compared to untreated (control) animals. Immunized animals (treated and untreated) were challenged with B. pertussis 18323 strain and the animals were observed for 14 days. Results indicate that the treated animals did show significant increase in antibody titers as compared to untreated animals after challenge (P = 0.002). Immunoprotection against intra-cerebral challenge of live B. pertussis cells was evaluated based on degree of sickness, paralysis and subsequent death. Reduced mortality accompanied with overall improved health status was observed in treated animals after intra-cerebral challenge of B. pertussis indicating development of protective immune response. Present study indicates applications of test material as potential immunoadjuvant that also offers direct therapeutic benefits resulting in less morbidity and mortality.
Bioactive constituents from Asparagus cochinchinensis:
Bioassay-directed fractionation of the dried roots of Asparagus cochinchinensis led to the isolation of a new spirostanol saponin, asparacoside (1), two new C-27 spirosteroids, asparacosins A (2) and B (3), a new acetylenic derivative, 3' '-methoxyasparenydiol (4), and a new polyphenol, 3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxy-4'-dehydroxynyasol (6), as well as five known phenolic compounds, asparenydiol (5), nyasol (7), 3' '-methoxynyasol (8), 1,3-bis-di-p-hydroxyphenyl-4-penten-1-one (9), and trans-coniferyl alcohol (10). Compounds 1, 6, and 8 demonstrated moderate cytotoxicities in a panel comprised of KB, Col-2, LNCaP, Lu-1, and HUVEC cells, with IC(50) values ranging from 4 to 12 microg/mL. The structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods.
Experimental excitotoxicity provokes oxidative damage in mice brain and attenuation by extract of Asparagus racemosus:
Excitotoxicity and oxidative stress are the major mechanisms of neuronal cell death in neurodegenerative disorders that occurs in both Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are generated extracellularly and intracellularly by various mechanisms are among the major risk factors that initiate and promote neurodegeneration. Therefore, it is important to find the compound which retard or reverse the neuronal injury. We designed this study to investigate the potential of extract of Asparagus racemosus against kainic acid (KA)-induced hippocampal and striatal neuronal damage. The dose of Asparagus racemosus extract given to experimental animals was based on the evaluation of its total antioxidant activity. Extract of AR displayed potent reductant of Fe(3+). The excitotoxic lesion in brain was produced by intra-hippocampal and intra-striatal injections of kainic acid (KA; 0.25 microg in a volume of 0.5 microl) to ketamine and xylazine (200 and 2 mg/kg b.w. respectively) anesthetized mice. The results showed impairment of hippocampus and striatal regions of brain after KA injection marked by an increase in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content and decline in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) content. The Asparagus racemosus extract supplemented mice displayed an improvement in GPx activity and GSH content and reduction in membranal lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl. We show that the minimizing effect of Asparagus racemosus extract on oxidative damage in addition to the elevation of GPx activity and GSH content could eventually result in protective effect on the KA-induced excitotoxicity.
Time-dependent Changes in the Longitudinal Sugar and Respiratory Profiles of Asparagus Spears During Storage at 0 oC:
Respiratory and Fermentative Metabolisms in Asparagus Tips under Low O2/High CO2 Atmospheres.
Regulation of the Steady State Oxygen in Asparagus Spears Tips: Responses of Glycolytic Metabolism and Sucrose-metabolizing Enzymes under Low Oxygen/High Carbon Dioxide Atmospheres.
Phosphate and Nucleotide Metabolism under Low O2 and High CO2 Partial Pressures in the Tips of Harvested Asparagus Spears Stored at 1
TIME-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN THE LONGITUDINAL SUGAR AND RESPIRATORY PROFILES OF ASPARAGUS SPEARS DURING STORAGE AT 0 OC:
The rate of respiration and the concentration of sucrose,glucose, and fructose were measured along the length of intact asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. cv. Giant Jersey) spears during a 23 d of storage at 0 oC.
Carbon dioxide production at each of five positions along the spear was initially high,but underwent a rapid and extensive decline within the first 24 h after harvest, with the rate of decline proceeding more slowly thereafter. The respiration rate was highest at the tip (section 1), decreasing as the distance from the tip increased (section 2 through 5,with the section # 5 being more basal). Initially the respiration rate of the tip was approximately four times that of the base, but after 23 d at 0 oC, the respiration rate of the tip was only twice that of the base. Sugar levels were measured in sections 1 through 4. Sugar levels declined with time, but increased, unlike respiration,with distance from the tip. Sucrose underwent a rapid decline within the first 24 h of storage in the tip, and in sections 3 and 4. Sucrose depletion was most extensive in the tip, reaching more than 95% by day 23. Glucose underwent the most rapid decline initial in section 2. The relative higher rate of glucose depletion in section 2 may have being to support respiration and cell wall biosynthesis. The sucrose/fructose and sucrose/glucose ratios decreased for the tip and increased for the section 2 with storage duration,suggesting that sugars were translocated from lower sections as sugars in the spear tip were depleted. After 7 d storage, the rate of carbon used for respiration in the tip outstripped carbon loss due to sugars depletion, suggesting that hexoses were imported from more basipetal locations and used to support respiration.
RESPIRATORY AND FERMENTATIVE METABOLISMS IN ASPARAGUS TIPS UNDER LOW O2/HIGH CO2 ATMOSPHERES:
Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears were placed in modified atmosphere packages contained in ventilated glass jars at 1 . This system was used to generate a range of O2 levels (0.16 to 16 kPa) in combination with four CO2 levels (0, 5, 10 and 20 kPa). CO2 production, O2 uptake, RQ, soluble sugars, visual quality, ethanol,acetaldehyde, lactate, and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities were measured. The respiration rate dropped as O2 declined. The fermentation threshold was approximately 1 kPa O2 for the 0 kPa CO2 treatment and increased as CO2 levels increased. The RQ was dependent on both O2 and CO2 levels. The RQ increased as O2 declined below 2 kPa; this response was enhanced by CO2 partial pressure.
Ethanol and acetaldehyde accumulated in the packages at low O2 partial pressures, increasing in concentration as RQ increased. The level of sucrose declined markedly, relative to harvest, in the 6 days required for the packages to reach steady state O2. Sucrose, glucose and fructose contents were highest for spears exposed to 5 and 10 kPa CO2 at O2 partial pressures greater than 2 kPa. Lactate tended to accumulate at O2 levels below between 2 kPa relative to higher O2 levels. A CO2 partial pressure of 20 kPa brought about a marked elevation in lactate levels at O2 partialpressures greater than 4 kPa.
Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activities were increased as the level of CO2 increased for O2 levels above 4 kPa. ADH activity increased at O2 levels below 1 kPa. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was lower than that of ADH. At O2 levels greater than 4 kPa, LDH activity increased as CO2 partial pressure increased. ADH activity was greatest for all CO2 treatments at O2 partial pressures between 0.5 and 2 kPa. Visual quality tended to increase as O2 level increased. Visual quality tended to be reduced by CO2 for any given O2 level. The visual quality of spears was maintained best in response to at 5 kPa CO2 followed, in order, by 0, 10 and 20 kPa CO2.
REGULATION OF THE STEADY STATE OXYGEN IN ASPARAGUS SPEARS TIPS: RESPONSES OF GLYCOLYTIC METABOLISM AND SUCROSE-METABOLIZING ENZYMES UNDER LOW OXYGEN/HIGH CARBON DIOXIDE ATMOSPHERES:
This study was performed to determine the effects of low O2 and high CO2 atmospheres on sucrose-metabolizing enzymes and glycolytic metabolism in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spear tips. Spear tips were stored at 1 with 12 different O2 partial pressures of starting from approximately 0.16 to16 kPa in combination with CO2 treatments of 0, 5, 10, and 20 kPa using a system combining modified atmosphere packages in flow-through containers.Glycolytic intermediate levels and enzyme activities were examined in spear tips at harvest time and once steady state atmospheres were reached (approximately 6 days). From the sugar-metabolizing enzymes, bound acid invertase (BAI) followed by sucrose synthase (SS) had higher activity after 6 days of storage indicating that sucrose is degraded mostly in the apoplast. With the exception of PYR and PEP, which sequentially increased for O2 levels below 2 kPa, O2-deficient range caused a marked reduction in sugars and glycolytic intermediates relative to spears at harvest, a trend that seemed to be independent of CO2 partial pressures. After 6 days storage at O2 levels above 2 kPa, G6P and F6P contents increased relative to levels present in the tissues at harvest. The effects of CO2 were variable, but the same level of O2 combined with 20 kPa CO2 caused a 50% reduction in G6P relative to the harvest and a 3-fold decrease when compared to spears placed at 16 kPa O2 in the absence of CO2. Low O2 apparently enhanced the interconversion of PEP to PYR and F6P to F1,6P2 relative to high O2.Higher CO2 enhanced the interconversion of PEP to PYR, but only at lower O2.Asparagus spears tips seems to be differently affected by O2 and CO2.Low O2 seemed to have a more marked effect on increasing the activity of pyruvate kinase as compared to phosphofructokinases. On the other hand, high CO2,besides having an effect on PK, seems to have a larger effect on the conversion of F6P to F1,6P2., at lower O2-deficient range, which may account for the acceleration of glycolysis observed under those conditions.
PHOSPHATE AND NUCLEOTIDE METABOLISM UNDER LOW O2 AND HIGH CO2 PARTIAL PRESSURES IN THE TIPS OF HARVESTED ASPARAGUS SPEARS STORED AT 1:
This study was performed to determine the effects of low O2 and high CO2 atmospheres on phosphate and adenylate metabolism in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spear tips. Spears were stored at 1 with 12 different O2 partial pressure treatments starting from approximately 0.16 to 16 kPa in combination with CO2 partial pressures of 0, 5, 10, and 20 kPa using modified atmosphere packaging combined with a flow-through system. Pyrophosphate (PPi), inorganic phosphate (Pi), ATP, ADP, and AMP contents were measured at harvest and after steady state atmospheres were reached (approximately 6 days). When spears in packages at 16 kPa O2 were compared to spears at harvest, relatively little change occurred in adenylate or phosphate pools. PPi and ATP contents decreased as the O2 partial pressure declined below 16 kPa O2. The most rapid rate of decline occurred as the O2 partial pressure declined below the fermentation threshold (approximately 1 kPa O2).
The decrease in Ppi and ATP with declining O2 was paralleled by a dramatic increase in Pi, ADP, and AMP. After 6 d storage at O2 levels below 2 kPa, Pi,ADP, and AMP contents increased about five-fold relative to levels present at harvest. CO2 treatments had a large influence on metabolite content. In general, as CO2 increased, PPi and ATP decreased, while Pi, ADP and AMP increased. Within the range of gas combinations tested, O2 had a relatively greater effect than CO2.The adenylate energy charge (AEC) declined with a decline in the O2 partial pressure, declining most rapidly below 2 kPa O2. Low O2 reduced AEC relative to high O2. Increasing CO2 partial pressure reduced AEC.However, the effect of CO2 on AEC was not evident at lower O2.Decreases in PPi, ATP, and AEC, and parallel increases in Pi, ADP, and AMP with decreasing O2 and increasing CO2 suggest impairment of oxidative phosphorylation and a non-sustaining carbon metabolism, which may limit asparagus spear survival under O2-deficient conditions.
- 1.Asparagus Root is a highly regarded herb worldwide.
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